In September 2015, the United Nations established its 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
One hundred and ninety-three countries have adopted the goals with the ambition to tackle and achieve them by 2030. Each of the goals has specific targets that have been developed to address the full range of social and economic-development issues facing the world.
These amount to 169 targets, across the 17 goals, that require innovation and interdisciplinary thinking from many different actors, including governments, industries, sectors, communities and even finance professionals.
As Mariana Mazzucato highlights, in her book Mission Economy, the goals aim to address complex global problems,
1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere. This goal is split into five target areas.5
2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. The goal is split into five target areas.6
3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. The goal is split into nine target areas.7
4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. The goal is split into seven target areas.8
5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. The goal is split into six target areas.9
6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. The goal is split into six target areas.10
7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. The goal is split into three target areas.11
8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. The goal is split into 10 target areas.12
9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation. The goal is split into five target areas.13
10 Reduce inequality within and among countries. The goal is split into seven target areas.14
11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The goal is split into seven target areas.15
12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. The goal is split into eight target areas.16
13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The goal is split into three target areas.17
14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. The goal is split into seven target areas.18
15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. The goal is split into nine target areas.19
16 Provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. The goal is split into 10 target areas.20
17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development. The goal is split into five target areas.21
Reflecting on the fifth anniversary of the goals introduction, in his book, Value(s), Mark Carney notes,
The goals, therefore, represent a
group of complex, interconnected
issues, facing the world that require
global collaboration and private-public partnerships to achieve them.